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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 48-54

A cross-sectional study to assess the risk factors for the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at a tertiary care hospital, Gangtok

1 Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim, India
2 Department of Medicine, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Sikkim Manipal University, Gangtok, Sikkim, India
3 Department of Community Medicine, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Sikkim Manipal University, Gangtok, Sikkim, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Divij Sharma
41, Rohini Building, Colaba, RC Church, Mumbai - 400 005, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jopcs.jopcs_4_20

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Background and Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are common disorders that not only often coexist but also have a bidirectional association where each condition exacerbates the other. The present study was performed to ascertain the occurrence and predictors of risk factors of OSA in patients with type 2DM. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional hospital-based study recruiting 164 patients for over 2 months was conducted, in which each diabetic patient was assigned to complete a questionnaire on various variables followed by a general physical examination for associated comorbidities diabetic complications (neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy). Their fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were recorded, following which they were administered and assessed using Berlin Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Score for risk category and daytime sleepiness. Patients with already diagnosed OSA including ones receiving treatment for it were excluded from the study. Results: Of the 164 diabetic patients recruited in the study, 64 (39%) were at high risk for OSA in contrast to the 100 (61%) who were at low risk for OSA. Neck circumference, waist circumference, presence of hypertension and more than one comorbidities along with patients who experienced witnessed apnea at least three times a week, excessive daytime sleepiness, and habitual snorers found to be significant risk factors and practices in posing DM patients at a higher risk for OSA. Patients with body mass index ≥25 were more likely to have a high risk of OSA. FBG and HbA1c were not significant risk factors for OSA. Conclusions: OSA has a high prevalence in subjects with T2DM which reinforces the clinicians to remain observant for signs and symptoms of OSA in diabetic patients and monitor their compliance in terms of weight management, diet control, and medication adherence.

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